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There is…a second integrating principle of a political system: fear of an enemy: If the concept “enemy” and “fear” do constitute the “energetic principles”‘ of politics, a democratic political system is impossible, whether the fear is produced from within or from without. Montesquieu correctly observed that fear is what makes and sustains dictatorships. Politics denotes not the construction of a good society but the annihilation of an enemy.

July 6, 2013
“…there is…a second integrating principle of a political system: fear of an enemy. Fascist political thought asserts that the creation of a national community is conditioned by the the existence of an enemy whom one must be willing to exterminate physically. Politics denotes not the construction of a good society but the annihilation of an enemy. Anything-religion, art, race, class antagonisms-may be or may become political. If the concept “enemy” and “fear” do constitute the “energetic principles”‘ of politics, a democratic political system is impossible, whether the fear is produced from within or from without. Montesquieu correctly observed that fear is what makes and sustains dictatorships. If freedom is absence of restraints, the restraints to be removed today are many; the psychological restraint of fear ranks first. It is the existence and manipulation of fear that transforms a people into a mob. The anti-democratic theories of Maistre, Bonald, Donoso Cortes, Spengler and a host of others assert that democracy must, by its inner logic, degenerate into mob rule. Such necessity is a myth, very often promoted by those who wish to demonstrate the superiority of dictatorship. But the transformation from democracy into dictatorship seems to arise when the political system discards its liberal element and attempts to impose a creed upon its members, ostracizing those who do not accept it. This will be successful if, in John Dewey’s words, we attain the ‘stage of development in which a vague and mysterious feeling of uncertain terror seizes the populace.’ “

THE CONCEPT OF POLITICAL FREEDOM, by FRANZ L. NEUMANN (1954)

Franz L. Neumann (1900-1954)

I regret not being able to post the Neumann article here, its a PDF file, however, type this in at Google, it will appear: [PDF] Neumann, Franz, “On the Concept of Freedom”

I also regret not being able to find Neumann’s important article on Internet, “Anxiety and Politics”, it should be read in conjuntion with the article I posted above, please consult his Democratic and Authoritarian State.

http://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www127.pair.com/critical/art/f-neumann.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www127.pair.com/critical/f-neum.htm&h=200&w=200&sz=1&tbnid=zEEmOEVcujYUEM:&tbnh=160&tbnw=160&zoom=1&usg=__0NeFpJENjo1n9HJv20biePMPMBE=&docid=1E77Wy6k_hv-qM&itg=1&sa=X&ei=_k3YUde7K87itQa8rIGgDQ&ved=0CKkBEPwdMA0

The Franz Neumann Project:

Beyond the Behemoth

Toward a Critical Psychopathology of Fascism


“Hardly any other ideological element is held in such profound contempt in our civilization as international law. Every generation has seen it break down as an instrument for organizing peace, and a theory that disposes of its universalist claims has the obvious advantage of appearing to be realistic. The fallacy should be equally obvious, however. To abandon universalism because of its failures is like rejecting civil rights because they help legitimize and veil class exploitation, or democracy because it conceals boss control, or Christianity because churches have corrupted Christian morals. Faced with a corrupt administration of justice, the reasonable person does not demand a return to the war of each against all, but fights for an honest system. Likewise, when we have shown that international law has been misused for imperialistic aims, our task has begun, not ended. We must fight against imperialism.”

—Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944


Note on the Name Behemoth

“In the Jewish eschatology—of Babylonian origin—Behemoth and Leviathan designate two monsters, Behemoth ruling the land (the desert), Leviathan the sea, the first male, the second female. The land animals venerate Behemoth, the sea animals Leviathan, as their masters. Both are monsters of the Chaos. According to the apocalyptic writings, Behemoth and Leviathan will reappear shortly before the end of the world. They will establish a rule of terror—but will be destroyed by God. In other versions Behemoth and Leviathan will fight each other incessantly, and finally will destroy each other. The day of the righteous and just will then come. They will eat the meat of both monsters in a feast which announces the advent of a realm of God. Jewish eschatology, the Book of Job, the prophets, the apocryphal writings are full of references to this myth, which is often differently interpreted and often adapted to political circumstances. St. Augustine saw in the Behemoth the Satan.

It was Hobbes who made both the Leviathan and the Behemoth popular. His Leviathan is the analysis of a state, that is a political system of coercion in which vestiges of the rule of law and of individual rights are still preserved. His Behemoth, or the Long Parliament, however, discussing the English civil war of the seventeenth century, depicts a non-state, a chaos, a situation of lawlessness, disorder, and anarchy.

Since we believe National Socialism is—or tending to become—a non-state, a chaos, a rule of lawlessness and anarchy, which has ‘swallowed’ the rights and dignity of man, and is out to transform the world into a chaos by the supremacy of gigantic land masses, we find it apt to call the National Socialist system

The Behemoth.

—-“Note on the Name Behemoth” from Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944, New York: Oxford University Press, 1942,1944.


  Marcuse.org

Franz Neumann Biography

Herbert Marcuse, “Repressive Tolerance”

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

[Updated: February, 2006]

Franz Neumann [Short biographical sketch and bibliography]

  • Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944 [Table of Contents]
  • C. Wright Mills, “The Nazi Behemoth” (Review of Neumann’s Behemoth in Partisan Review, Sept./ Oct. 1942)

 ANTIFA Info Bulletin

Links: On Fascism, The Cold War, N.A.T.O. & the Balkan Conflict:

Balkan History and Culture Links[in progress]

Balkan Archives [Updated: March 27, 2001]

N.A.T.O. & Neo-Fascism:”The Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty, West Germany & the Opportune Career of General Adolf Ernst Heusinger (1949 – 1964)” [notes for a forthcoming article]


 CyberTimes Navigator [Excellent COLLECTION of Search Engines]


Franz Neumann [1900 – 1954 ]

Born into an assimilated German-Jewish family in Kattowitz (a city near Kraków which became Polish in 1921), Franz Neumann became involved in the socialist politics of soldiers’ and workers’ councils at the end of W.W. I, and was instrumental in organizing the Student Socialist Society in Frankfurt, where in 1918 he met Leo Lowenthal, future member of the Frankfurt School. At Breslau, Leipzig, Rostock and Frankfurt am Main, Neumann acquired a legal training which he put into practice during the Weimar Republic, working as a labor lawyer affiliated with the Social Democratic Party. He was arrested by the Nazis in April of 1933, and after a month of incarceration, escaped to England. At the London School of Economics he studied under Harold Laski and was granted a doctorate in Political Science. At Laski’s recommendation Neumann joined the Frankfurt Institute of Social Research in 1936. His presence at the Institute enhanced the critical-theoretical analysis of fascism and German National Socialism. His most significant work, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944 [Oxford, 1942, 1944] remains a classic in the field. In 1941, Neumann was recruited to the U.S. Board of Economic Warfare by William J. Donovan, and in July of 1942 he became the chief economist of the Intelligence Division at the Office of the U.S. Chief of Staff. In 1943 Neumann was transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), where he became deputy chief of the Central European Section [Rolf Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1994, 300-301]. In the summer of 1945, Neumann travelled to Nuremberg, where he was to become the first chief of research of the International War Crimes Tribunal. He died in 1954.


Recently Published Works:


Related Sites:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-1439623,00.html

http://ur.rutgers.edu/medrel/viewArticle.phtml?ArticleID=1984

http://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/98/10.29.98/Nuremberg.html

Nuremberg / Carl Schmitt:

http://www.philosophy.ru/library/pdf/201432.pdf or http://www.philosophy.ru/library/ctf.html

Immanent critique:

http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journals/details/issue/sample/a010359.pdf


Franz Neumann Bibliography

[from Rolf Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School, 1994, 749-750]

I. Books

  • 1929: Die politische und soziale Bedeutung der arbeitsgerichtlichen Rechtsprechung. Berlin: Laub.
  • 1931: Tarifrecht auf der Grundlage der Rechtsprechung des Rechsarbeitsgerichts. Berlin: Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund.
  • 1932: Koalitionsfreiheit und Reichsverfassung. Die Stellung der Gewerkschaften im Verfassungssystem. Berlin: Heymann.
  • 1934: Trade Unionism, Democracy, Dictatorship. Preface by Harold J. Laski. London: Workers’ Educational Trade Union Committee. [Published in the U.S. as European Trade Unionism and Politics, ed. Carl Raushenbuch. New York: League for Industrial Democracy, 1936.]
  • 1935: (under pseudonym Leopold Franz) Die Gewerkschaften in der Demokratie und in der Diktatur. Probleme des Sozialismus, 13. Karlsbad: Graphia.
  • 1942: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism. London: Gollancz.
  • 1944: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933 – 1944. 2nd rev. edn, with new appendix. Toronto: Oxford University Press. [Table of Contents]
  • 1957: The Democratic and the Authoritarian State: Essays in Political and Legal Theory, ed. Herbert Marcuse. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.
  • 1978: Wirtschaft, Staat, Demokratie. Aufsätze 1930 – 1954, ed. Alfons Söllner. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
  • 1980: Die Herrschaft des Gesetzes. Eine Untersuchung zum Verhältnis von politischer Theorie und Rechtssystem in der Konkurenzgesellschaft , trans. & ed. Alfons Söllner. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp. (German trans. of the 1936 doctoral dissertation, ‘The Governance of the Rule of Law: an Investigation into the Relationship between the Political Theories, the Legal System, and the Social Background in the Competitive Society,’ London School of Economics, 1936 (supervisor: Harold J. Laski).
  • 1986: The Rule of Law: Political Theory and the Legal System in Modern Society, ed. Matthias Ruete. Leamington Spa: Berg.

II. Articles

  • “Der Funktionswandel des Gesetzes im Recht der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft,” Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, 6, no. 3 (1937), 542-96.
  • “Types of Natural Law,” Studies in Philosophy and Social Science, 8, no. 3 (1940), 338-61.
  • “Intellektuelle und politische Freiheit,” in Sociologica I. Aufsätze, Max Horkheimer zum sechzigsten Geburtstag gewidment. Frankfurter Beiträge zur Soziologie, 1. Frankfurt a.M.: Europäische Verlags-Anstalt, 1955.
  • “Approaches to the Study of Political Power,” Political Science Quarterly, 65 (1950), 161-80.
  • “The Intelligentsia in Exile.” In Paul Connerton (ed.), Critical Sociology: Selected Readings, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976, pp. 423-41. (From Neumann’s chapter, “The Social Sciences,” in W. Rex Crawford (ed.), The Cultural Migration: the European Scholar in America, Philadelphis: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953, pp. 4 – 25.)

III. Correspondence

  • A few letters in Rainer Erd (ed.), Reform und Resignation. Gespräche über Franz L. Neumann. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1984.

  • C. Wright Mills, “The Nazi Behemoth” (Review of Neumann’s Behemoth in Partisan Review, Sept./ Oct. 1942)
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