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The citizens of US, who were sceptic, that they have just to fight for the profits of the capitalistic elites, went to war against Hitlers, because the government promised them, it will be the last war! The government will support the creation of a century of the common people! US-Vice-President Henry Wallace 1942: ““The march of the common people had just begun. The march of freedom of the past one hundred and fifty years has been a long-drawn-out people’s revolution. In this Great Revolution of the people, there were the American Revolution of 1775, The French Revolution of 1792, The Latin-American revolutions of the Bolivarian era, The German Revolution of 1848, and the Russian Revolution of 1917. But the significant thing is that the people groped their way to the light. More of them learned to think and work together. The people’s revolution aims at peace and not at violence. No nation will have the God-given right to exploit other nations. Older nations will have the privilege to help younger nations get started on the path to industrialization, but there must be neither military nor economic imperialism. The supreme duty of sacrificing the lesser interest for the greater interest of the general welfare. Those who write the peace must think of the whole world. There can be no privileged peoples. We ourselves in the United States are no more a master race than the Nazis. Some have spoken of the “American Century.” I say that the century on which we are entering — The century which will come out of this war — can be and must be the century of the common man.” We should not allow the US-Elites to lead their people with promises to give ther lives in a war for the (global) common man, and organise later, when they were strong enough again, only the century of the US-Elites! Already 1944, when the elites had won the people, to give their lives in war, they did not need Henry Wallace any more and pushed him out and from there they reastablished their hegemony and use since this time the US-Solidiers, to do the opposite, of what the government had promised 1942: For US-Imperialism and the exploitiation of the world!

April 28, 2013

“The Century of the Common Man”

Henry A. Wallace’s speech articulating the goals of the war for the allies. From his book The Century of the Common Man. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1943.

This is a fight between a slave world and a free world. Just as the United States in 1862 could not remain half slave and half free, so in 1942 the world must make its decision for a complete victory one way or the other.

As we begin the final stages of this fight to the death between the free world and the slave world, it is worth while to refresh our minds about the march of freedom for the common man. The idea of freedom — the freedom that we in the United States know and love so well — is derived from the Bible with its extraordinary emphasis on the dignity of the individual. Democracy is the only true political expression of Christianity.

The prophets of the Old Testament were the first to preach social justice. But that which was sensed by the prophets many centuries before Christ was not given complete and powerful political expression until our nation was formed as a Federal Union a century and a half ago. Even then, the march of the common people had just begun. Most of them did not yet know how to read and write. There were no public schools to which all children could go. Men and women can not be really free until they have plenty to eat, and time and ability to read and think and talk things over. Down the years, the people of the United States have moved steadily forward in the practice of democracy. Through universal education, they now can read and write and form opinions of their own. They have learned, and are still learning, the art of production — that is, how to make a living. They have learned, and are still learning, the art of self-government.

If we were to measure freedom by standards of nutrition, education and self-government, we might rank the United States and certain nations of Western Europe very high. But this would not be fair to other nations where education had become widespread only in the last twenty years. In many nations, a generation ago, nine out of ten of the people could not read or write. Russia, for example, was changed from an illiterate to a literate nation within one generation and, in the process, Russia’s appreciation of freedom was enormously enhanced. In China, the increase during the past thirty years in the ability of the people to read and write has been matched by their increased interest in real liberty.

Everywhere, reading and writing are accompanied by industrial progress sooner or later inevitably brings a strong labor movement. From a long-time and fundamental point of view, there are no backward peoples which are lacking in mechanical sense. Russians, Chinese, and the Indians both of India and the Americas all learn to read and write and operate machines just as well as your children and my children. Everywhere the common people are on the march. Thousands of them are learning to read and write, learning to think together, learning to use tools. These people are learning to think and work together in labor movements, some of which may be extreme or impractical at first, but which eventually will settle down to serve effectively the interests of the common man.

When the freedom-loving people march; when the farmers have an opportunity to buy land at reasonable prices and to sell the produce of their land through their own organizations, when workers have the opportunity to form unions and bargain through them collectively, and when the children of all the people have an opportunity to attend schools which teach them truths of the real world in which they live — when these opportunities are open to everyone, then the world moves straight ahead.

But in countries where the ability to read and write has been recently acquired or where the people have had no long experience in governing themselves on the basis of their own thinking, it is easy for demagogues to arise and prostitute the mind of the common man to their own base ends. Such a demagogue may get financial help from some person of wealth who is unaware of what the end result will be. With this backing, the demagogue may dominate the minds of the people, and, from whatever degree of freedom they have, lead them backward into slavery. Herr Thyssen, the wealthy German steel man, little realized what he was doing when he gave Hitler enough money to enable him to play on the minds of the German people. The demagogue is the curse of the modern world, and of all the demagogues, The worst are those financed by well-meaning wealthy men who sincerely believe that their wealth is likely to be safer if they can hire men with political “it” to change the sign posts and lure the people back into slavery of the most degraded kind. Unfortunately for the wealthy men who finance movements of this sort, as well as for the people themselves, The successful demagogue is a powerful genie who, when once let out of his bottle, refuses to obey anyone’s command. As long as his spell holds, he defies God Himself, and Satan is turned loose upon the world.

Through the leaders of the Nazi revolution, Satan now is trying to lead the common man of the whole world back into slavery and darkness. For the stark truth is that the violence preached by the Nazis is the devil’s own religion of darkness. So also is the doctrine that one race or one class is by heredity superior and that all other races or classes are supposed to be slaves. THE belief in one Satan-inspired Fuhrer, with his Quislings, his Lavals, and his Mussolinis — his “gauleiters” in every nation in the world — is the last and ultimate darkness. Is there any hell hotter than that of being a Quisling, unless it is that of being a Laval or a Mussolini?

In a twisted sense, there is something almost great in the figure of the Supreme Devil operating through a human form, in a Hitler who has the daring to spit straight into the eye of God and man. But the Nazi system has a heroic position for only one leader. By definition only one person is allowed to retain full sovereignty over his own soul. All the rest are stooges — they are stooges who have been mentally and politically degraded, and who feel that they can get square with the world only by mentally and politically degrading other people. These stooges are really psychopathic cases. Satan has turned loose upon us the insane.

The march of freedom of the past one hundred and fifty years has been a long-drawn-out people’s revolution. In this Great Revolution of the people, there were the American Revolution of 1775, The French Revolution of 1792, The Latin-American revolutions of the Bolivarian era, The German Revolution of 1848, and the Russian Revolution of 1917. Each spoke for the common man in terms of blood on the battlefield. Some went to excess. But the significant thing is that the people groped their way to the light. More of them learned to think and work together.

The people’s revolution aims at peace and not at violence, but if the rights of the common man are attacked, it unleashed the ferocity of a she-bear who has lost a cub. When the Nazi psychologists tell their master Hitler that we in the United States may be able to produce hundreds of thousands of planes, but that we have no will to fight, they are only fooling themselves and him. The truth is that when the rights of the American people are transgressed, as those rights have been transgressed, The American people will fight with a relentless fury which will drive the ancient Teutonic gods back cowering into their caves. The Götterdämmerung has come for Odin and his crew.

The people are on the march toward even fuller freedom than the most fortunate peoples of the earth have hitherto enjoyed. No Nazi counter-revolution will stop it. The common man will smoke the Hitler stooges out into the open in the United States, in Latin America, and in India. He will destroy their influence. No Lavals, no Mussolinis will be tolerated in a Free World.

The people, in their millennial and revolutionary march toward manifesting here on earth the dignity that is in every human soul, hold as their credo the Four Freedoms enunciated by President Roosevelt in his message to Congress on January 6, 1941. These four freedoms are the very core of the revolution for which the United Nations have taken their stand. We who live in the United States may think there is nothing very revolutionary about freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and freedom from the fear of secret police. But when we begin to think about the significance of freedom from want for the average man, then we know that the revolution of the past one hundred and fifty years has not been completed, either here in the United States or in any other nation in the world. We know that this revolution can not stop until freedom from want has actually been attained.

And now, as we move forward toward realizing the Four Freedoms of this people’s revolution, I would like to speak about four duties. It is my belief that every freedom, every right, every privilege has its price, its corresponding duty without which it can not be enjoyed. The four duties of the people’s revolution, as I see them today, are these:
The duty to produce the limit.
The duty to transport as rapidly as possible to the field of battle.
The duty to fight with all that is in us.
The duty to build a peace — just, charitable and enduring.

The fourth duty is that which inspires the other three.

We failed in our job after World War Number One. We did not know how to go about it to build an enduring world-wide peace. We did not have the nerve to follow through and prevent Germany from rearming. We did not insist that she “learn war no more.” We did not build a peace treaty on the fundamental doctrine of the people’s revolution. We did not strive whole-heartedly to create a world where there could be freedom from want for all peoples. But by our very errors we learned much, and after this war we shall be in position to utilize our knowledge in building a world which is economically, politically and, I hope, spiritually sound.

Modern science, which is a by-product and an essential part of the people’s revolution, has made it technologically possible to see that all of the people of the world get enough to eat. Half in fun and half seriously, I said the other day to Madame Litvinov: “The object of this war is to make sure that everybody in the world has the privilege of drinking a quart of milk a day.” She replied: “Yes, even half a pint.” The peace must mean a better standard of living for the common man, not merely in the United States and England, but also in India, Russia, China and Latin America — not merely in the United Nations, but also in Germany and Italy and Japan.

Some have spoken of the “American Century.” I say that the century on which we are entering — The century which will come out of this war — can be and must be the century of the common man. Perhaps it will be America’s opportunity to suggest that Freedoms and duties by which the common man must live. Everywhere the common man must learn to build his own industries with his own hands is a practical fashion. Everywhere the common man must learn to increase his productivity so that he and his children can eventually pay to the world community all that they have received. No nation will have the God-given right to exploit other nations. Older nations will have the privilege to help younger nations get started on the path to industrialization, but there must be neither military nor economic imperialism. The methods of the nineteenth century will not work in the people’s century which is now about to begin. India, China, and Latin America have a tremendous stake in the people’s century. As their masses learn to read and write, and as they become productive mechanics, their standard of living will double and treble. Modern science, when devoted whole-heartedly to the general welfare, has in it potentialities of which we do not yet dream.

And modern science must be released from German slavery. International cartels that serve American greed and the German will to power must go. Cartels in the peace to come must be subjected to international control for the common man, as well as being under adequate control by the respective home governments. In this way, we can prevent the Germans from again building a war machine while we sleep. With international monopoly pools under control, it will be possible for inventions to serve all the people instead of only a few.

Yes, and when the time of peace comes, The citizen will again have a duty, The supreme duty of sacrificing the lesser interest for the greater interest of the general welfare. Those who write the peace must think of the whole world. There can be no privileged peoples. We ourselves in the United States are no more a master race than the Nazis. And we can not perpetuate economic warfare without planting the seeds of military warfare. We must use our power at the peace table to build an economic peace that is just, charitable and enduring.

If we really believe that we are fighting for a people’s peace, all the rest becomes easy. Production, yes — it will be easy to get production without either strikes or sabotage, production with the whole-hearted cooperation between willing arms and keen brains; enthusiasm, zip, energy geared to the tempo of keeping at it everlastingly day after day. Hitler knows as well as those of us who sit in on the War Production Board meetings that we here in the United States are winning the battle of production. He knows that both labor and business in the United States are doing a most remarkable job and that his only hope is to crash through to a complete victory some time during the next six months.

And then there is the task of transportation to the line of battle by truck, by railroad car, by ship. We shall joyously deny ourselves so that our transportation system is improved by at least thirty percent.

I need say little about the duty to fight. Some people declare, and Hitler believes, that the American people have grown soft in the last generation. Hitler agents continually preach in South America that we are cowards, unable to use, like the “brave” German soldiers, the weapons of modern war. It is true that American youth hates war with a holy hatred. But because of that fact and because Hitler and the German people stand as the very symbol of war, we shall fight with a tireless enthusiasm until war and the possibility of war have been removed from this planet. We shall cleanse the plague spot of Europe, which is Hitler’s Germany, and with it the hell-hole of Asia — Japan.

No compromise with Satan is possible. We shall not rest until all the victims under the Nazi yoke are freed. We shall fight for a complete peace as well as a complete victory.

The people’s revolution is on the march, and the devil and all his angels can not prevail against it. They can not prevail, for on the side of the people is the Lord.

“He giveth power to the faint; to them that have no might He increaseth strength…. They that wait upon the Lord shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; they shall walk and not be faint.”

Strong in the strength of the Lord, we who fight in the people’s cause will never stop until that cause is won.

(May 8, 1942)

Henry A. Wallace
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This article is about the vice president of the United States. For other people of the same name, see Henry Wallace (disambiguation).Henry A. Wallace

33rd Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by John N. Garner
Succeeded by Harry S. Truman
11th United States Secretary of Agriculture
In office
March 4, 1933 – September 4, 1940
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Arthur M. Hyde
Succeeded by Claude R. Wickard
10th United States Secretary of Commerce
In office
March 2, 1945 – September 20, 1946
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Jesse Holman Jones
Succeeded by W. Averell Harriman
Personal details
Born Henry Agard Wallace
October 7, 1888
Orient, Iowa
Died November 18, 1965 (aged 77)
Danbury, Connecticut
Nationality American
Political party Democratic (1933-1946)
Progressive (1946-1948)
Spouse(s) Ilo Browne
Children Henry Browne Wallace
(1915-2005), Jean Wallace
(1920-2011), Robert Browne Wallace (1918-2002)
Alma mater Iowa State University
Religion Episcopalian

Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946). In the 1948 presidential election, Wallace was the nominee of the Progressive Party.Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Religious Explorations
3 Political career
3.1 Secretary of Agriculture
3.2 Vice President
3.3 Roerich controversy
3.4 Secretary of Commerce
3.5 The New Republic
3.6 The 1948 Presidential election
4 Later career and death
5 In popular culture
6 See also
7 References
7.1 Bibliography
7.2 Writings
8 External links

Early life

Henry A. Wallace was the son of Henry Cantwell Wallace, farmer, newspaper editor, university professor, Secretary of Agriculture in the Republican administrations of Warren G. Harding and Coolidge, and author of the book Our Debt and Duty to the Farmer. Henry Agard was born on October 7, 1888, at a farm near the village of Orient, Iowa, in Adair County,[1] but the family later moved to Des Moines. The Wallaces were of Scotch Irish Presbyterian stock, who had originally emigrated from Ulster, Ireland to Pennsylvania. His grandfather, Henry Wallace (no middle name), also known as “Uncle Henry”, was a former Presbyterian minister who preached the “social gospel”. As a large landowner in Iowa “Uncle Henry” was an advocate of “scientific farming” and helped organize The Farmers’ Protective Association, Agricultural Editors Association, and the Iowa Improved Stock Association, becoming the editor of the Iowa Homestead, the state’s largest and most important farm publication. He viewed it as his life mission to serve God by helping his fellow farmers, a legacy he passed on to his son and grandson.[2] Wallace’s mother, née May Brodhead, was deeply religious. She had been to college and was trained in music and art.[3] May Wallace transmitted her love of plants to her son while he was still a boy, teaching him to cross-breed pansies.[4] When the African-American “plant doctor” and future agronomist George Washington Carver became a student and later an instructor at Iowa State University, the Wallaces took him into their home, since Carver was not allowed to live in the dorm because race prejudice. As a boy, Wallace accompanied Carver on nature walks, identifying the botanical structures of wild flowers and prairie grasses. Carver left for Tuskegee when Wallace was eight, but his influence on the boy was deep and lasting. By the age of ten Wallace was experimenting with plant breeding in his own plot. He also developed a keen interest in math and statistics. At fifteen he demonstrated through controlled experiments the fallaciousness of the then-conventional way of judging the excellence of strains of corn solely by such aesthetic qualities as the beauty and symmetry of the ears, rather than the vigor and productivity of the whole plant as measured quantitatively.[5] Wallace’s experiments proved that there was no relationship between yield and appearance. Where hybridity had traditionally been viewed negatively as “mongrelization” signaling decline, Wallace introduced the positive concept of hybrid vigor.

Wallace attended Iowa State College at Ames, Iowa, graduating in 1910 with a bachelor’s degree in animal husbandry. He worked on the editorial staff of the family-owned paper Wallaces’ Farmer in Des Moines from 1910 to 1924 and edited this publication from 1924 to 1929. Wallace experimented with breeding high-yielding hybrid corn, and he wrote a good number of publications on agriculture. In 1915, he devised the first corn-hog ratio charts indicating the probable course of markets. Wallace was also a practicing (i.e., applied) statistician,[6] co-authoring an influential article with pioneering statistician George W. Snedecor of the University of Iowa on computational methods for correlations and regressions[7] and publishing sophisticated statistical studies in the pages of Wallaces’ Farmer. Snedecor invited Wallace to teach a graduate course on least squares.[8] It was Wallace, more than any other individual, who introduced econometrics (a form of statistical analysis used by economists) to the field of agriculture.[9]

In 1914, Wallace married Ilo Browne, and in 1926, with the help of a small inheritance that had been left to her, he founded the highly successful Hi-Bred Corn Company, which made him a wealthy man. The company later became Pioneer Hi-Bred, a major agriculture corporation. It was acquired in 1999 by the Dupont Corporation for approximately $10 billion.
Religious Explorations

Wallace was raised as a Presbyterian and remained a devout Christian all his life. In college, however, he became increasingly dissatisfied with organized religion after reading William James’ The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902). Around 1919 he stopped attending the Presbyterian church[10] and spent the next ten years exploring other religious faiths and traditions, including spiritualism and esoteric religion. He later said, “I know I am often called a mystic, and in the years following my leaving the United Presbyterian Church I was probably a practical mystic … I’d say I was a mystic in the sense that George Washington Carver was – who believed God was in everything and therefore, if you went to God, you could find the answers.”[11] Wallace was not a Theosophist, but like many “advanced” people in his era, was influenced by theosophical ideas. In 1925 he helped organize a Des Moines parish of the Liberal Catholic Church, an inclusive Christian denomination with ties to theosophy. In 1939, however, he formally joined the Episcopal Church.

One of the people with whom Wallace corresponded was the Irish poet, artist, and Theosophist George William Russell, also known as Æ, who was editor of the Irish Homestead, the weekly publication of the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society (IAOS). Russell, like Wallace fervently dedicated to revitalizing rural life, had pioneered the rural cooperative Credit Union movement in Ireland.

During the 1930s Wallace also engaged in an exchange of jocular notes with Russian émigré, artist, and peace activist Nicholas Roerich, his wife Helena, and Frances Grant, Secretary of the Roerich Museum in New York. In 1933 the Roosevelt Administration, which had just formally recognized the Soviet Union, sent Roerich on an expedition to Central Asia on behalf of the Department of Agriculture. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., who was hostile to Wallace, writes that “Wallace did Roerich a number of favors, including sending him on an expedition to Central Asia presumably to collect drought-resistant grasses. In due course, H.A. [Wallace] became disillusioned with Roerich and turned almost viciously against him.”[12] Wallace’s biographers John C. Culver and John Hyde, however, write that it is unclear with whom the idea for the Roerich expedition originated, since in cabinet meetings Wallace had opposed Roosevelt’s granting of recognition to the Soviet government because of its hostility to organized religion and his fear it would dump grain on the United States.[13]

Roerich had gained international celebrity through his lobbying for the preservation of the world’s cultural and artistic monuments, a cause Wallace enthusiastically adopted. Roerich and especially his wife Helena Ivanova had developed their own brand of Theosophy that they called Living Ethics or Agni Yoga, which emphasized the common thread that runs through all religions. He had been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize and invited to Herbert Hoover’s White House. Wallace had met him in 1929 and Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt were also acquainted with him.[13] Roosevelt, who perhaps came by an interest in Asian religions through his mother Sara, had also exchanged letters with Helena Roerich. Roosevelt had also introduced Wallace to The Glory Road a political allegory about the Great Depression written by popular Broadway playwright Arthur Hopkins. On the dust jacket, The Glory Road is said to describe, “the experience of the human race as it has tried to follow the road of truth while at the same time building up for itself a structure of civilization that will yield material wealth”.[14] Culver and Hyde identify this best–selling book the source of the pen-names Wallace later adopted in some of his correspondence – perhaps including the so-called “guru letters” he exchanged with Roerich and his circle. For example. in a letter to FDR Wallace says, “You can be ‘the flaming one”. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. describes Wallace’s references to figures in The Glory Road (such as “the feverent one” and so on), as “rash” and “cabalistic”, bespeaking what Schlesinger calls “moods of rapture.”[15] However, Wallace’s use of the term in addressing Roosevelt is likely an in-joke, since in The Glory Road, there is no “flaming one”, but rather a “flameless one’, “elected as his people’s executive”, supported by bankers and corrupt leaders, who urges the electorate to “buy, buy, buy” as a way out of economic collapse.[16]

Henry Wallace was also a Freemason and attained the 32nd Degree in the Scottish Rite.
Political career
Secretary of Agriculture

In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Wallace United States Secretary of Agriculture in his Cabinet, a post Wallace’s father, Henry Cantwell Wallace, had occupied from 1921 to 1924. Henry A. Wallace was a registered Republican and would remain so until 1936[17] but had been a progressive and had campaigned for Democratic candidate Al Smith. He was one of the three Republicans that Roosevelt appointed to his cabinet (the others were Harold Ickes, (Secretary of the Interior), and William H. Woodin (Secretary of the Treasury)). As Agriculture Secretary, Wallace’s policies were controversial: to raise prices of agricultural commodities he instituted the slaughtering of hogs, plowing up cotton fields, and paying farmers to leave some lands fallow. He also advocated the ever-normal granary concept. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, critical of Wallace in many respects, pronounced Wallace “the best secretary of agriculture the country has ever had.” “Wallace was a great secretary of agriculture”, Schlesinger wrote:

In 1933, a quarter of the American people still lived on farms, and agricultural policy was a matter of high political and economic significance. Farmers had been devastated by depression. H.A.’s ambition was to restore the farmers’ position in the national economy. He sought to give them the same opportunity to improve income by controlling output that business corporations already possessed. In time he widened his concern beyond commercial farming to subsistence farming and rural poverty. For the urban poor, he provided food stamps and school lunches. He instituted programs for land-use planning, soil conservation, and erosion control. And always he promoted research to combat plant and animal diseases, to locate drought-resistant crops and to develop hybrid seeds in order to increase productivity.[18]
Vice President

Wallace served as Secretary of Agriculture until September 1940, when Roosevelt selected him as his running mate in the Vice Presidential slot on the 1940 presidential ticket. However, the conservative wing of the Democratic Party, many of them Southerners, distrusted Wallace:

Wallace was an unreconstructed liberal reformer and New Dealer, qualities that recommended him to Roosevelt. But the old guard Democratic Party deeply distrusted Wallace as an apostate Republican and as a doe-eyed mystic who symbolized all that they found objectionable about [what they saw as] the hopelessly utopian, market-manipulating, bureaucracy-breeding New Deal.[19]

Boos echoed through the hall when Roosevelt’s choice of Wallace was announced and the delegates seemed on the verge of rebellion. It was only after Roosevelt threatened to decline the nomination and that Eleanor Roosevelt delivered a conciliatory speech that they grudgingly yielded.[20]

Wallace was elected in November 1940 as Vice President on the Democratic Party ticket with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His inauguration took place on January 20, 1941, for the term ending January 20, 1945.

Roosevelt named Wallace chairman of the Board of Economic Warfare (BEW) and of the Supply Priorities and Allocations Board (SPAB) in 1941. Both positions became important with the U.S. entry into World War II. As he began to flex his newfound political muscle in his position with SPAB, Wallace came up against the conservative wing of the Democratic party in the form of Jesse H. Jones, Secretary of Commerce, as the two differed on how to handle wartime supplies.

On May 8, 1942, Wallace delivered his most famous speech, which became known by the phrase “Century of the Common Man” to the Free World Association in New York City. This speech, grounded in Christian references, laid out a positive vision for the war beyond the simple defeat of the Nazis. The speech, and the book of the same name which appeared the following year, proved quite popular, but it earned him enemies among the Democratic leadership, among important allied leaders like Winston Churchill, and among business leaders and conservatives.

Wallace spoke out during race riots in Detroit in 1943, declaring that the nation could not “fight to crush Nazi brutality abroad and condone race riots at home.”

Vice President Henry Wallace

In 1943, Wallace made a goodwill tour of Latin America, shoring up support among important allies. His trip proved a success, and helped persuade twelve countries to declare war on Germany. Regarding trade relationships with Latin America, he convinced the BEW to add “labor clauses” to contracts with Latin American producers. These clauses required producers to pay fair wages and provide safe working conditions for their employees and committed the United States to paying for up to half of the required improvements. This met opposition from the U.S. Department of Commerce.

In his speech Wallace characterized the American, French, and Russian revolutions as reflecting humanity’s aspirational “march to freedom of the past 150 years.” After having met Molotov, he arranged a trip to the “Wild East” of Russia. On May 23, 1944, he started a 25-day journey accompanied by Owen Lattimore. Coming from Alaska, they landed at Magadan where they were received by Sergei Goglidze and Dalstroi director Ivan Nikishov, both NKVD generals. The NKVD presented a fully sanitized version of the slave labor camps in Magadan and Kolyma to their American guests, claiming that all the work was done by volunteers, provided entertainment, and by some accounts left their guests impressed with the “development” of Siberia and the spirit of the “volunteers.” Lattimore’s film of the visit tells that “a village… in Siberia is a forum for open discussion like a town meeting in New England.”[21] This visit took place while the U.S. and the Soviet Union were allies; American propaganda regularly portrayed the Soviet Union in a positive light. The trip continued to Mongolia and then to China.

After Wallace feuded publicly with Jesse H. Jones and other high officials, Roosevelt stripped him of his war agency responsibilities and entertained the idea of replacing him on the presidential ticket. The Democratic Party, with concern being expressed privately about Roosevelt being able to make it through another term, chose Harry S. Truman as Roosevelt’s running mate at the 1944 Democratic convention, after New Deal partisans failed to promote William O. Douglas. Wallace was succeeded as Vice President on January 20, 1945, by Truman. On April 12, 1945, Vice President Truman succeeded to the Presidency when President Franklin D. Roosevelt died. Henry A. Wallace had missed being the 33rd President of the United States by just 82 days.
Roerich controversy

Wallace had exchanged letters with Nicholas Roerich, a Russian émigré and artist of international renown who was also a visionary peace activist interested in Tibetan Buddhism.[22] Wallace and Roosevelt successfully lobbied Congress to support Roerich’s Banner and Pact of Peace, dedicated to protection of the artistic and scientific institutions of the world from the ravages of war; and, in 1935, delegates from 22 Latin American countries met in Washington, D.C., to sign the pact. In 1934, Roosevelt and the U.S. Department of Agriculture sent Roerich and his Harvard-educated son George, who had studied Asian languages, on an expedition to Central Asia to search for drought-resistant grasses to prevent another Dust Bowl. However, once there, Roerich upset the diplomatic world and the US agricultural experts who accompanied him by searching for and possibly trying to bring about a revival of the legendary Buddhist kingdom of Shambhalla, variously located in Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, or Manchuria.[23] These areas were under the jurisdiction of the British and Japanese empires, which did not look kindly on movements for national self-determination. After Wallace recalled him, the U.S. government aggressively pursued Roerich for tax evasion, and the artist (the holder of a French passport) took up residence in India, where gurus were not considered so unusual.

During the 1940 presidential election, the Republicans gained possession of a series of letters that Wallace had written to Roerich in the 1930s. In them, Wallace had addressed Roerich as “Dear Guru”, signing himself as “G” – for Galahad, the name Roerich had bestowed on him.[24] Wallace assured Roerich that he awaited “the breaking of the New Day” when the people of “Northern Shambhalla”, a Buddhist term for the “land of pure enlightenment”, would create an era of peace and plenty.[citation needed]

The Republicans had threatened to reveal to the public what they characterized as Wallace’s eccentric religious beliefs prior to the November 1940 elections, but they had been deterred when the Democrats countered by threatening to release information about Republican candidate Wendell Willkie’s rumored extramarital affair with the writer Irita Van Doren.[12][25] The contents of the letters did become public seven years later, in the winter of 1947, when right-wing columnist Westbrook Pegler published what purported to be extracts from them, characterizing Wallace as a “messianic fumbler,” and “off-center mentally”. During the 1948 campaign, Pegler and other hostile reporters, including H.L. Mencken, aggressively confronted Wallace on the subject a public meeting in Philadelphia in July 1948. Wallace declined to comment, accusing the reporters of being Pegler’s stooges.[26]
Secretary of Commerce

Portrait of Henry Wallace

Roosevelt placated Wallace by appointing him Secretary of Commerce. Wallace served in this post from March 1945 to September 1946, when he was fired by President Harry S. Truman because of disagreements about the policy towards the Soviet Union. He is the last former Vice President to serve in the President’s cabinet.
The New Republic

Following his term as Secretary of Commerce, Wallace became the editor of The New Republic magazine, using his position to criticize vociferously Truman’s foreign policy. On the declaration of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, he predicted it would mark the beginning of “a century of fear”.
The 1948 Presidential election

Wallace left his editorship position in 1948 to make an unsuccessful run as a Progressive Party candidate in the 1948 U.S. presidential election. With Idaho Democratic U.S. Senator Glen H. Taylor as his running mate, his platform advocated friendly relations with the Soviet Union, an end to the nascent Cold War, an end to segregation, full voting rights for blacks, and universal government health insurance. His campaign was unusual for his time in that it included African American candidates campaigning alongside white candidates in the American South, and that during the campaign he refused to appear before segregated audiences or eat or stay in segregated establishments.

As a further sign of the times, he was noted by Time as ostentatiously riding through various cities and towns in the South “with his Negro secretary beside him”.[27] A barrage of eggs and tomatoes were hurled at Wallace and struck him and his campaign members during the tour, while at the same time President Truman referred to such behavior towards Wallace as “highly un-American business which violated the American concept of fair play.” Wallace commented that “there is a long chain that links unknown young hoodlums in North Carolina or Alabama with men in finely tailored business suits in the great financial centers of New York or Boston, men who make a dollars-&-cents profit by setting race against race in the far away South.”[27] State authorities in Virginia sidestepped enforcing its own segregation laws by declaring Wallace’s campaign gatherings as private parties.[28]

The “guru letters” reappeared now and were published, seriously hampering his campaign.[12] More damage was done to Wallace’s campaign when journalists H.L. Mencken and Dorothy Thompson, both longtime and vocal New Deal opponents,[29] charged that Wallace and the Progressives were under the covert control of Communists.

Wallace’s refusal to publicly disavow the endorsement of his candidacy by the Communist Party (USA) cost him the backing of many anti-Communist liberals and of independent socialist Norman Thomas. In 1999, University of Cambridge historian Christopher Andrew, author of The Defence of the Realm, who worked with evidence in the Mitrokhin Archive and wrote the authorized history of the British Secret Service MI5, has stated publicly[30] that he believed Wallace was a KGB agent, though he provided no evidence for this assertion.

Wallace suffered a decisive defeat in the election to the Democratic incumbent Harry S. Truman. He finished in fourth place with 2.4% of the popular vote; some historians now believe his candidacy was a blessing in disguise for the President, as Wallace’s frequent criticisms of Truman’s foreign policy, combined with his avowed acceptance of Communist support, served as a refutation of the Republicans’ claim that Truman was “soft on communism”. Dixiecrat presidential candidate Strom Thurmond outstripped Wallace in the popular vote. Thurmond managed to carry several states in the Deep South, gaining 39 electoral votes to Wallace’s electoral total of zero.
Later career and death

Wallace resumed his farming interests, and resided in South Salem, New York. During his later years, he made a number of advances in the field of agricultural science. His many accomplishments included a breed of chicken that at one point accounted for the overwhelming majority of all egg-laying chickens sold across the globe. The Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, the largest agricultural research complex in the world, is named for him.

In 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea, Wallace broke with the Progressives and backed the U.S.-led war effort in the Korean War.[12] Despite this, according to Wallace’s diary, opinion polls showed after his 1951 Senate Internal Security Subcommittee testimony a second place to Lucky Luciano as the ‘least approved man in America’. Previously, subsequent of listening to gulag survivor and friend Vladimir Petrov about the true nature of the 1944 Vice Presidential Magadan visit, he publicly apologized for having allowed himself to be fooled by the Soviets.[31] [32] In 1952, Wallace published Where I Was Wrong, in which he explained that his seemingly-trusting stance toward the Soviet Union and Joseph Stalin stemmed from inadequate information about Stalin’s crimes and that he, too, now considered himself an anti-Communist.

He wrote various letters to “people who he thought had traduced (maligned) him” and advocated the re-election of President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956.[12] In 1961, President-elect John F. Kennedy invited Wallace to his inauguration ceremony, though he had supported Kennedy’s opponent Richard Nixon. A touched Wallace wrote to Kennedy: “At no time in our history have so many tens of millions of people been so completely enthusiastic about an Inaugural Address as about yours.”[12]

Wallace first experienced the onsets of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) on one of his frequent trips to South America in 1964.[33] He died in Danbury, Connecticut, in 1965.[12][34] His remains were cremated at Grace Cemetery in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and the ashes interred in Glendale Cemetery, Des Moines, Iowa.
In popular culture

Director Oliver Stone focused on Wallace’s career in the second episode, entitled “Roosevelt, Truman, and Wallace”, of his 2012 documentary series, Oliver Stone’s Untold History of the United States.
See also
Honeydew (melon), apparently first introduced to China by H.A. Wallace and still locally known there as the “Wallace melon”[35]
Bailan melon, one of the most famous Chinese melon cultivars, bred from the “Wallace melon”
^ “Papers of Henry A. Wallace”. University of Iowa. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
^ John C. Culver and John Hyde, American Dreamer: The Life and Times of Henry A. Wallace (W.W. Norton, 2001), p. 8.
^ Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 9.
^ Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 2.
^ Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 27–28.
^ Farebrother, Richard William (2008). “Henry Agard Wallace and Machine Calculation”. The Bulletin of the International Linear Algebra Society (40): 1–24
^ Wallace, Henry Agard; Snedecor, George Waddel (1925). “Correlation and Machine Calculation”. Iowa State College Bulletin 35
^ Grier, David Alan. “The Origins of Statistical Computing”. Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
^ See “The Life of Henry A. Wallace, 1888-1965”, on website of The Wallace Center for Agricultural and Environmental Policy of Winrock International.
^ Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 77.
^ The Reminiscences of Henry Agard Wallace, Oral history at Columbia University (1951), quoted in Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 78
^ a b c d e f g Arthur Schlesinger Jr. / Who Was Henry A. Wallace?
^ a b Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 136.
^ Kirkus Review Summary of The Glory Road.
^ Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal, 1933-1935: The Age of Roosevelt, Vol. 2 (New York: Mariner Books [1958, 1986], 2003) pp. 32–33.
^ Arthur Hopkins, The Glory Road [New York: Dutton, 1935), p. 141.
^ David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: the American People in Depression and War 1929–1945 (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 457.
^ Arthur Schlesinger Jr., “Who Was Henry A. Wallace?”, Los Angeles Times (March 20, 2000). Eric Rauchway, on the other hand, argues that the farm states then and now had and have too much influence relative to their small population to the detriment of urban areas. He calls Wallace’s policies misguided because the family farm with single-family dwelling was a nineteenth-century dream unsuited to modern needs. The future of agriculture, in his view, lay in industrial farming. Further, Rauchwaycharacterizes as heartless such New Deal price-support measures as plowing up excess cotton and destroying excess baby pigs. Rauchway does admit, however, that 90% of farmers during the New Deal era supported Roosevelt’s policies. See Eric Rauchway, The Great Depression and the New Deal: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2008), Chapter 5, “Managing Farm and Factory”, pp. 72–86.
^ Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, p. 457.
^ David M. Kennedy believes that in nominating Wallace, Roosevelt was “throwing a bouquet” to “old progressive wing of the Republican Party, represented by George W. Norris, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette Jr., in hopes that they would join the New Deal Coalition (see Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, p. 457).
^ Tim Tzouliadis. The Forsaken. The Penguin Press (2008). pp. 217–226. ISBN 978-1-59420-168-4.
^ Drayer, Ruth Abrams, Nicholas & Helena Roerich: The Spiritual Journey of Two Great Artists and Peacemakers. Quest Books (Theosophical Publishing House), 2005, xxiv + 357 pp. ISBN 0-8356-0843-5
^ The legend of the enlightened land of Shambhala, that had solved the human problems of greed and violence, was the inspiration of “Shangri-la” in James Hilton’s 1933 best-seller, Lost Horizon. The novel was a favorite of Roosevelt’s, who named his presidential retreat after it. Under the Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the retreat was rechristened Camp David.
^ According to Wallace’s biographers, exactly what happened during the so-called Roerich affair, “proved difficult to untangle. . . . Many of the documents involving the Roerich case were privately written and held during Wallace’s lifetime. Some of them were forgeries written specifically to damage him. Others were genuine but no less baffling”. See Culver and Hyde, American Dreamer, p. 119.
^ The religion of Henry A. Wallace, U.S. Vice-President
^ Pegler’s column for July 27, 1948, “In Which Our Hero Beards ‘Guru’ Wallace In His Own Den.”
^ a b “National Affairs – Eggs in the Dust”. Time. September 13, 1948. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
^ “Am I in America?”. Time. September 6, 1948. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
^ Mencken, an opponent of democracy, had called the New Deal “a complete repudiation of the American moral system”. See Vincent Fitzpatrick, H. L. Mencken (Mercer University Press, 1989) p. 110; for Dorothy Thompson, see Carl Rollyson, “Cherchez La Femme “, The New Criterion (February 2012).
^ The Mitrokhin Archive. Vol. I: The KGB in Europe and the West (1999) (with Vasili Mitrokhin).
^ “Henry A. Wallace”. The New York Times. November 19, 1965. “Although his career was marred by one major failure of judgment, Henry A. Wallace contributed significantly to the progress and prosperity of his country.”
^ Dirlik, Arif; Wilson, Rob (1995). Asia/Pacific as space of cultural production. Durham, N.C: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1643-9.
Conant, Jennet. The Irregulars: Roald Dahl and the British Spy Ring in Wartime Washington. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008. British Intelligence surveillance of Vice President Henry A. Wallace and other Washington figures during and immediately after World War II.
Culver, John C. and John Hyde. American Dreamer: The Life and Times of Henry A. Wallace. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.
Macdonald, Dwight. Henry Wallace: the Man and the Myth. Vanguard Press, 1948.
Markowitz, Norman D. The Rise and Fall of the People’s Century: Henry A. Wallace and American Liberalism, 1941-1948. New York: The Free Press, 1973.
Maze, John and Graham White, Henry A. Wallace: His Search for a New World Order. University of North Carolina Press. 1995
Pietrusza, David 1948: Harry Truman’s Improbable Victory and the Year that Changed America. Union Square Press, 2011.
Schapsmeier, Edward L. and Frederick H. Schapsmeier. Prophet in Politics: Henry A. Wallace and the War Years, 1940-1965. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1970.
Schapsmeier, Edward L. and Frederick H. Schapsmeier. Henry A. Wallace of Iowa: the Agrarian Years, 1910-1940. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1968.
Schmidt, Karl M. Henry A. Wallace, Quixotic Crusade 1948. Syracuse University Press, 1960.
Walker, J. Samuel Walker. Henry A. Wallace and American Foreign Policy. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1976.
Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. “The Prince of Wallese”. Times Literary Supplement, November 24, 2000. Review of Culver and Hyde’s American Dreamer; Henry A. Wallace’s A World of Hope a World of fear; Mark L. Kleinman’s Henry A. Wallace, Reinhold Niebuhr, and American liberalism; and Zachary Karabell’s The Last Campaign: How Harry Truman Won the 1948 Election. “Wallese” was Dwight Macdonald’s term for what he considered Wallace’s fatuous rhetoric of religious uplift.
Agricultural Prices (1920)
New Frontiers (1934)
America Must Choose (1934)
Statesmanship and Religion (1934)
Technology, Corporations, and the General Welfare (1937)
The Century of the Common Man (1943)
Democracy Reborn (1944)
Sixty Million Jobs (1945)
Soviet Asia Mission (1946)
Toward World Peace (1948)
The Price of Vision – The Diary of Henry A. Wallace 1942-1946 (1973), edited by John Morton Blum
External links
Selected Works of Henry A. Wallace
“The Century of the Common Man”. The text of Wallace’s 1942 speech.
Papers of Henry Wallace Digital Collection
Quotes by Henry A. Wallace
Searchable index of Wallace papers at the Library of Congress, Franklin D Roosevelt Library, and the University of Iowa
“Henry A. Wallace – Agricultural Pioneer, Visionary and Leader”, Iowa Pathways, education site of Iowa Public Television
“The Life of Henry A. Wallace: 1888-1965”, on website of The Wallace Center for Agricultural and Environmental Policy at Winrock International
A film clip “Longines Chronoscope with Henry A. Wallace (December 28, 1951)” is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
A film clip “Longines Chronoscope with Henry Agard Wallace (October 17, 1952)” is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
“Is There Any ‘Wallace’ Left in the Democratic Party?”, The Real News (TRNN). Scott Wallace, grandson of Henry A. Wallace, interviewed by Paul Jay (video).
Peter Beinart, “An Argument for a New Liberalism”, The New Republic (December 2, 2004). Beinart argued that Truman’s 1948 defeat of Wallace helped transform the Democrats into an anti-totalitarian party. Beinart condemned liberal Democrats who opposed the 2003 Iraq invasion as “Wallacite”, a derogatory term he coined to indicate “soft on totalitarianism and external threats”. Beinart subsequently reversed his position on the Iraq war, saying it had been “a tragic mistake”.
“Wallace, Henry Agard (1888-1965)”. Biography of Wallace on Documents Talk: A Non-Definitive History, a site devoted to recent research in Soviet Cold War Archives maintained by Svetlana Chervonnaya
FBI file on Henry Wallace
The Country Life Center location of The Wallace Centers of Iowa: birthplace farm of Henry A. Wallace. Museum and gardens.Political offices
Preceded by
Jesse Holman Jones U.S. Secretary of Commerce
Served under: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman
March 2, 1945 – September 20, 1946 Succeeded by
W. Averell Harriman
Preceded by
John N. Garner Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945 Succeeded by
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by
Arthur M. Hyde U.S. Secretary of Agriculture
Served under: Franklin D. Roosevelt
March 4, 1933 – September 4, 1940 Succeeded by
Claude R. Wickard
Party political offices
Preceded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt American Labor presidential nominee
1948 Succeeded by
Vincent Hallinan
New political party Progressive presidential nominee
Preceded by
John N. Garner Democratic vice presidential nominee
1940 Succeeded by
Harry S. Truman
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Vice Presidents of the United States

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Democratic Party

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United States Secretaries of Agriculture

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United States Secretaries of Commerce

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Cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945)

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Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953)

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United States presidential election, 1940

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United States presidential election, 1944

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United States presidential election, 1948

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