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The most important document of mankind can unite us globaly: LET US ORGANISE A GLOBAL CONSTITUTION-MOVEMENT TO CREATE A WORLD ACCORDING TO THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS:Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

April 27, 2013

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

PREAMBLE

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1.

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.

  • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3.

  • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4.

  • No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5.

  • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6.

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7.

  • All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8.

  • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10.

  • Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11.

  • (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
  • (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
  • (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
  • (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
  • (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16.

  • (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
  • (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
  • (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
  • (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
  • (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
  • (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
  • (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22.

  • Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
  • (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
  • (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
  • (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24.

  • Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
  • (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  • (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
  • (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27.

  • (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  • (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28.

  • Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29.

  • (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
  • (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
  • (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30.

  • Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Created 1948
Ratified 10 December 1948
Location Palais de Chaillot, Paris
Author(s) John Peters Humphrey (Canada), René Cassin (France), P. C. Chang (China), Charles Malik (Lebanon), Eleanor Roosevelt (United States), among others
Purpose Human rights
Rights

Theoretical distinctions
Claim rights and liberty rights · Individual and group rights · Natural and legal rights · Negative and positive rights
Human rights
Civil and political · Economic, social and cultural · Three generations
Rights by claimant
Animals · Authors · Children · Consumers · Fathers · Fetuses · Humans · Indigenes · Kings · LGBT · Men · Minorities · Mothers · Plants · Students · Women · Workers · Youth · Disabled persons
Other groups of rights
Civil liberties · Digital · Linguistic · Reproductive
v · t · e

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris. The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. The full text is published by the United Nations on its website.

It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols. In 1966 the General Assembly adopted the two detailed Covenants, which complete the International Bill of Human Rights; and in 1976, after the Covenants had been ratified by a sufficient number of individual nations, the Bill took on the force of international law.[1]Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Precursors
1.2 Adoption
2 Structure
3 Commemoration: International Human Rights Day
4 Significance and legal effect
4.1 Significance
4.2 Legal effect
5 Reaction
5.1 Praise
5.2 Criticism
5.2.1 Islamic countries
5.2.2 The Right to Refuse to Kill
5.2.3 Women
5.3 Bangkok Declaration
6 See also
6.1 Human Rights
6.2 Non-binding agreements
6.3 National human rights law
6.4 International human rights law
6.5 Other
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
10.1 Audiovisual Materials

[edit]
History
[edit]
Precursors
Franklin Delano Roosevelt State of the Union (Four Freedoms) (6 January 1941)
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 6 January 1941 State of the Union address introducing the theme of the Four Freedoms (starting at 32:02)
Problems listening to this file? See media help.

Main article: History of human rights

During the Second World War the allies adopted the Four Freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from fear, and freedom from want, as their basic war aims. The United Nations Charter “reaffirmed faith in fundamental human rights, and dignity and worth of the human person” and committed all member states to promote “universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion” [2] A universal declaration that specified the rights of individuals was necessary to give effect to the Charter’s provisions on human rights.[3] At the time Humphrey was newly appointed as Director of the Division of Human Rights within the United Nations Secretariat.[4] The Commission on Human Rights, a standing body of the United Nations, was constituted to undertake the work of preparing what was initially conceived as an International Bill of Rights.[5] The membership of the Commission was designed to be broadly representative of the global community with representatives of the following countries serving: Australia, Belgium, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Chile, China, Egypt, France, India,-family phrases were the result of the Christian Democratic movement’s influence on Cassin and Malik.[6]
[edit]
Adoption

The Universal Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favor, 0 against, with eight abstentions: the Soviet Union, Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, People’s Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, People’s Republic of Poland, Union of South Africa, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[7][8] South Africa’s opposition had been clear throughout the process. Eleanor Roosevelt attributed the abstention of the Soviet bloc nations to Article 13, which provided the right of citizens to leave their countries.[9]

The following countries voted in favor of the Declaration:[10]
Afghanistan
Argentina
Australia
Belgium
Bolivia
Brazil
Burma
Canada
Chile
Republic of China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Argentina
Australia
Belgium
Bolivia
Brazil
Burma
Canada
Chile
Republic of China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Egypt
Ethiopia
France
Guatemala
Haiti
India
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Argentina
Australia
Belgium
Bolivia
Brazil
Burma
Canada
Chile
Republic of China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Egypt
Ethiopia
France
Guatemala
Haiti
India
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Liberia
Pakistan
Romania
Greece
Iceland
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Norway
Panama
Paraguay
Argentina
Australia
Belgium
Bolivia
Brazil
Burma
Canada
Chile
Republic of China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Egypt
Ethiopia
France
Guatemala
Haiti
India
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Liberia
Pakistan
Romania
Greece
Iceland
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Norway
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Sweden
Syria
Thailand
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela

Despite the central role played by Canadian John Humphrey, the Canadian Government at first abstained from voting on the Declaration’s draft, but later voted in favor of the final draft in the General Assembly.[11]
[edit]
Structure

The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was introduced in its second draft which was prepared by René Cassin. Cassin worked from a first draft prepared by John Peters Humphrey. The structure was influenced by the Code Napoleon, including a preamble and introductory general principles.[12] Cassin compared the Declaration to the portico of a Greek temple, with a foundation, steps, four columns and a pediment. Articles 1 and 2 are the foundation blocks, with their principles of dignity, liberty, equality and brotherhood. The seven paragraphs of the preamble, setting out the reasons for the Declaration, represent the steps. The main body of the Declaration forms the four columns. The first column (articles 3–11) constitutes rights of the individual, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery. Articles 6 through 11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defense when violated. The second column (articles 12–17) constitutes the rights of the individual in civil and political society. The third column (articles 18–21) is concerned with spiritual, public and political freedoms such as freedom of thought, conscience and religion, as well as freedom of association. The fourth column (articles 22–27) sets out social, economic and cultural rights. In Cassin’s model, the last three articles of the Declaration provide the pediment which binds the structure together. These articles are concerned with the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations Organisation.[13]
[edit]
Commemoration: International Human Rights Day
Main article: Human Rights Day

The adoption of the Universal Declaration is a significant international commemoration marked each year on 10 December and is known as Human Rights Day or International Human Rights Day. The commemoration is observed by individuals, community and religious groups, human rights organisations, parliaments, governments and the United Nations. Decadal commemorations are often accompanied by campaigns to promote awareness of the Declaration and human rights. 2008 marked the 60th anniversary of the Declaration and was accompanied by year-long activities around the theme “Dignity and justice for all of us”.[14]
[edit]
Significance and legal effect
[edit]
Significance

The Guinness Book of Records describes the UDHR as the “Most Translated Document”[15] in the world. In the preamble, governments commit themselves and their people to progressive measures which secure the universal and effective recognition and observance of the human rights set out in the Declaration. Eleanor Roosevelt supported the adoption of the UDHR as a declaration rather than as a treaty, because she believed that it would have the same kind of influence on global society as the United States Declaration of Independence had within the United States. In this, she proved to be correct. Even though it is not legally binding, the Declaration has been adopted in or has influenced most national constitutions since 1948. It has also served as the foundation for a growing number of national laws, international laws, and treaties, as well as regional, national, and sub-national institutions protecting and promoting human rights.
[edit]
Legal effect

While not a treaty itself, the Declaration was explicitly adopted for the purpose of defining the meaning of the words “fundamental freedoms” and “human rights” appearing in the United Nations Charter, which is binding on all member states. For this reason the Universal Declaration is a fundamental constitutive document of the United Nations. Many international lawyers,[who?] in addition, believe that the Declaration forms part of customary international law[16] and is a powerful tool in applying diplomatic and moral pressure to governments that violate any of its articles. The 1968 United Nations International Conference on Human Rights advised that it “constitutes an obligation for the members of the international community” to all persons. The declaration has served as the foundation for two binding UN human rights covenants, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the principles of the Declaration are elaborated in international treaties such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Convention Against Torture and many more. The Declaration continues to be widely cited by governments, academics, advocates and constitutional courts and individual human beings who appeal to its principles for the protection of their recognised human rights.
[edit]
Reaction
[edit]
Praise

The Universal Declaration has received praise from a number of notable people. Charles Malik, Lebanese philosopher and diplomat, called it “an international document of the first order of importance,”[17] while Eleanor Roosevelt, first chairwoman of the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) that drafted the Declaration, stated that it “may well become the international Magna Carta of all men everywhere.”[18] 10 December 1948. In a speech on 5 October 1995, Pope John Paul II called the UDHR “one of the highest expressions of the human conscience of our time”.[19] And in a statement on 10 December 2003 on behalf of the European Union, Marcello Spatafora said that “it placed human rights at the centre of the framework of principles and obligations shaping relations within the international community.”[citation needed]
[edit]
Criticism
[edit]
Islamic countries

Most Islamic countries have signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other human rights agreements. In 1948, Saudi Arabia did not sign the declaration, claiming that it violated Islamic Sharia law.[20] However, Pakistan (which had signed the declaration) disagreed with and critiqued the Saudi position.[21] In 1982, the Iranian representative to the United Nations, Said Rajaie-Khorassani, said that the UDHR was “a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition”, which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law.[22] On 30 June 2000, Muslim nations that are members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) officially resolved to support the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam,[23] an alternative document that says people have “freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Shari’ah”, without any discrimination on grounds of “race, colour, language, sex, religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations”. As a secular state, Turkey has signed the declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and other European Human Rights agreements.

A number of scholars in different fields have expressed concerns with the Declaration’s alleged western bias. These include Irene Oh (Religion and Ethics), Abdulaziz Sachedina (Religion), Riffat Hassan (Theology) and Faisal Kutty (Law). Riffat Hassan argues as follows:

“What needs to be pointed out to those who uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be the highest, or sole, model, of a charter of equality and liberty for all human beings, is that given the Western origin and orientation of this Declaration, the “universality” of the assumptions on which it is based is – at the very least – problematic and subject to questioning. Furthermore, the alleged incompatibility between the concept of human rights and religion in general, or particular religions such as Islam, needs to be examined in an unbiased way.”[24]

Irene Oh argues that one of the ways to reconcile the two is to approach it from the perspective of comparative ethics.[25]

Kutty writes: “A strong argument can be made that the current formulation of international human rights constitutes a cultural structure in which western society finds itself easily at home … It is important to acknowledge and appreciate that other societies may have equally valid alternative conceptions of human rights.”[26]
[edit]
The Right to Refuse to Kill

Groups such as Amnesty International[27] and War Resisters International[28] have advocated for “The Right to Refuse to Kill” to be added to the UDHR. War Resisters International has stated that the right to conscientious objection to military service is primarily derived from, but not yet explicit in, Article 18 the UDHR: the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.[28]

Steps have been taken within the United Nations to make this right more explicit; but those steps have been limited to secondary, more “marginal” United Nations documents. That is why Amnesty International would like to have this right brought “out of the margins” and explicitly into the primary document, namely the UDHR itself.[27]
To the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights one more might, with relevance, be added. It is “The Right to Refuse to Kill.”[29]

— Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations, and Nobel Peace Laureate, Sean MacBride, 1974 Nobel Lecture

[edit]
Women An editor has expressed a concern that this section lends undue weight to certain ideas relative to the article as a whole. Please help to discuss and resolve the dispute before removing this message. (March 2013)

American feminist Catharine MacKinnon has asked the question “are women considered human?”, focusing in part on the use of male-centric terms such as brotherhood in Article 1 and himself and his family in article 23.[30]
[edit]
Bangkok Declaration

In the Bangkok Declaration adopted by Ministers of Asian states meeting in 1993 in the lead up to the World Conference on Human Rights held in the same year, Asian governments reaffirmed their commitment to the principles of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They stated their view of the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights and stressed the need for universality, objectivity and non-selectivity of human rights. At the same time, however, they emphasized the principles of sovereignty and noninterference, calling for greater emphasis on economic, social, and cultural rights, particularly the right to economic development, over civil and political rights. The Bangkok Declaration is considered to be a landmark expression of the Asian Values perspective, which offers an extended critique of human rights universalism.[31]
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See also Freedom of speech portal
Human rights portal

[edit]
Human Rights
History of human rights
Timeline of young people’s rights in the United Kingdom
Timeline of young people’s rights in the United States
[edit]
Non-binding agreements
Cyrus Cylinder, Ancient Persia, 559–530 BC
United States Declaration of Independence, 1776
Declaration of Sentiments, 1848
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 1990
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, 1993
United Nations Millennium Declaration, 2000
[edit]
National human rights law
Cáin Adomnáin, 697
Magna Carta, England, 1215
Golden Bull, Hungary, 1222
Habeas Corpus Act 1679, England, 1679
English Bill of Rights and Scottish Claim of Right, 1689
Virginia Declaration of Rights, 1776
United States Bill of Rights, completed in 1789, approved in 1791
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, France 1789
Constitution of the Soviet Union, first 1918, but did not guarantee rights to the middle class
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982
[edit]
International human rights law
European Convention on Human Rights, 1952
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1954
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1969
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1976
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1976
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1981
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000
Slavery in Russia
Human Rights in Mainland China
Slavery in the United States
[edit]
Other
Command responsibility
Declaration on Great Apes, an as-yet unsuccessful effort to extend some human rights to great apes
Racial equality proposal,1919
The Farewell Sermon, 632
[edit]
Notes
^ Williams 1981; This is the first book edition of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with a foreword by Jimmy Carter.
^ “United Nations Charter, preamble and article 55”. United Nations. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
^ “UDHR – History of human rights”. Universalrights.net. Retrieved 2012-07-07.</|1999|p=5}}
^ Morsink 1999, p. 133
^ Morsink 1999, p. 4
^ Carlson, Allan (12 January 2004. Globalizing Family Values.
^ UDHR Drafting History, Center for New Media Teaching and Learning, Columbia University
^ See “Who are the signatories of the Declaration?” in Questions and answers about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations Association in Canada.
^ Glendon 2001, p. 169–70.
^ Yearbook of the United Nations 1948–1949 p 535
^ Schabas, William (1998). “Canada and the Adoption of Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (fee required). McGill Law Journal 43: 403.
^ Glendon 2002, pp. 62–64.
^ Glendon 2002, Chapter 10.
^ “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 1948–2008”. United Nations. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
^ “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human rights.
^ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Digital record of the UDHR”. United Nations.
^ Statement by Charles Malik as Representative of Lebanon to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Universal Declaration, 6 November 1948[dead link]
^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (1948-12-09). “Eleanor Roosevelt: Address to the United Nations General Assembly”. Americanrhetoric.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
^ “John Paul II, Address to the U.N., October 2, 1979 and October 5, 1995”. Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
^ “United Nations Charter, preamble and article 55”. United Nations. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
^ “UDHR – History of human rights”. Universalrights.net. Retrieved 2012-07-07.</|1999|p=5}}
^ Morsink 1999, p. 133
^ Morsink 1999, p. 4
^ Carlson, Allan (12 January 2004. Globalizing Family Values.
^ UDHR Drafting History, Center for New Media Teaching and Learning, Columbia University
^ See “Who are the signatories of the Declaration?” in Questions and answers about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations Association in Canada.
^ Glendon 2001, p. 169–70.
^ Yearbook of the United Nations 1948–1949 p 535
^ Schabas, William (1998). “Canada and the Adoption of Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (fee required). McGill Law Journal 43: 403.
^ Glendon 2002, pp. 62–64.
^ Glendon 2002, Chapter 10.
^ “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 1948–2008”. United Nations. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
^ “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human rights.
^ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Digital record of the UDHR”. United Nations.
^ Statement by Charles Malik as Representative of Lebanon to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Universal Declaration, 6 November 1948[dead link]
^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (1948-12-09). “Eleanor Roosevelt: Address to the United Nations General Assembly”. Americanrhetoric.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
^ “John Paul II, Address to the U.N., October 2, 1979 and October 5, 1995”. Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
^ Nisrine Abiad (2008). Sharia, Muslim states and international human rights treaty obligations: a comparative study. BIICL. pp. 60–65. ISBN 978-1-905221-41-7.
^ Price 1999, p. 163
^ Littman, D (February/March 1999). “Universal Human Rights and Human Rights in Islam”. Midstream. Archived from the original on 2006-05-12.
^ “Resolution No 60/27-P”. Organisation of the Islamic Conference. 2000-06-27. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
^ “Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam?”. religiousconsultation.org. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
^ “The Rights of God”. Georgetown University Press, 2007.
^ “Non-Western Societies Have Influenced Human Rights”. in Jacqueline Langwith, ed., Opposing Viewpoints: Human Rights (Gale/Greenhaven Press: Chicago, 2007) 41.
^ a b Out of the margins: the right to conscientious objection to military service in Europe: An announcement of Amnesty International’s forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights, 31 March 1997. Amnesty International.
^ a b A Conscientious Objector’s Guide to the UN Human Rights System, Parts 1, 2 & 3, Background Information on International Law for COs, Standards which recognise the right to conscientious objection, War Resisters’ International.
^ Sean MacBride, The Imperatives of Survival, Nobel Lecture, 12 December 1974, The Nobel Foundation – Official website of the Nobel Foundation. (English index page; hyperlink to Swedish site.) From Nobel Lectures in Peace 1971–1980.
^ “Are Women Human?”. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
^ “Final Declaration Of The Regional Meeting For Asia Of The World Conference On Human Rights”. Law.hku.hk. Retrieved 2012-07-07.

The Earth Charter
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References
Glendon, Mary Ann (2002). A world made new: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-76046-4.
Hashmi, Sohail H. (2002). Islamic political ethics: civil society, pluralism, and conflict. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11310-4.
Morsink, Johannes (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: origins, drafting, and intent. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1747-6.
Price, Daniel E. (1999). Islamic political culture, democracy, and human rights: a comparative study. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-96187-9.
Williams, Paul; United Nations. General Assembly (1981). The International bill of human rights. Entwhistle Books. ISBN 978-0-934558-07-5.
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Further reading
Feldman, Jean-Philippe. “Hayek’s Critique Of The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights”. Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 1999): 1145-6396.
Nurser, John. “For All Peoples and All Nations. Christian Churches and Human Rights.”. (Geneva: WCC Publications, 2005).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights pages at Columbia University (Centre for the Study of Human Rights), including article by article commentary, video interviews, discussion of meaning, drafting and history.
Introductory note by Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade and procedural history on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law
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External links Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Look up universal declaration of human rights in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Text of the UDHR (English)
Official translations of the UDHR
Resource Guide on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN Library, Geneva)
Questions and answers about the Universal Declaration
Text, Audio, and Video excerpt of Eleanor Roosevelt’s Address to the United Nations on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UDHR – Education
Revista Envío – A Declaration of Human Rights For the 21st Century
Introductory note by Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade and procedural history note on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law
The Laws of Burgos: 500 Years of Human Rights from the Law Library of Congress blog
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Audiovisual Materials
Librivox: Human-read audio recordings in several Languages
Text, Audio, and Video excerpt of Eleanor Roosevelt’s Address to the United Nations on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Animated presentation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Amnesty International, from Youtube (English, 20 minutes and 23 seconds)
Audio: Statement by Charles Malik as Representative of Lebanon to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Universal Declaration, 6 November 1948.
UN Department of Public Information introduction to the drafters of the Declaration.
Audiovisual material on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law[show]
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Categories: 1948 in law
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Declaration_of_Human_Rights

60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Photos:  1,2 | Next page

UN Photo
United Nations International Nursery School: It’s Human Rights Day for Them
UN photo
Drafting Committee on Intenational Bill of Rights( Commission on Human Rights), in Lake Success, New York.  Left to right : Dr. P.C. Chang, China; Henri Laugier; Mrs. Eleanor D. Roosevelt, USA; Prof. John P. Humphrey, Canada; Dr. Charles Malik, Lebanon; Prof. Vladimir M. Koretsky, USSR
UN Photo
Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States holding a Declaration of Human Rights poster in English
UN Photo
Three members of the UN Commission on Human Rights in conversation before a meeting on the Draft Covenant on Human Rights was continued.  Left to right: Dr. Charles Malik (Lebanon), Professor Rene Cassin (France), and Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt (USA).  Behind them are United States advisers, Ms. Marjorie Whiteman and Mr. James Simsarian
UN Photo
Partial view of the 1st meeting.  Left to right:   Colonel William Roy Hodgson, representig Australia; Dr. P.C. Chang of China, Vice-Chairman; Henri Langier, UN Assistat Secretary-General for Social Affairs; Mrs. Eleanor D. Roosevelt, of theUnited States, Chairman; Professor John P. Humphrey, Director, UN Human Rights Division; Dr. Charles Malik, Lebanon, Rapporteur; Professor Vladimir M. Koretsky, representative of USSR; Mr. H.T. Morgan, United Kingdom, alternate
UN Photo
Eleanor Roosevelt, Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights and United States representative welcomes the representative of the USSR, Professor Vladimir M. Koretsky to the Commission’s third session

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/60UDHRPhotoGallery.aspx

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